A recombinant antigen-based single serum dilution ELISA was developed for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza viruses. Recombinant baculovirus encoding the hemagglutinin (HA1 subunit) of H9N2 virus was generated. To evaluate the rHA1-ELISA, microplates were coated with purified HA1 protein and tested with reference control sera. Subsequently, 92 field sera collected from chickens suspected to be infected with H9N2 AIV were employed to test the efficacy of the rHA1-ELISA. The sera were tested simultaneously by HI and a commercial AIV ELISA kit. The rHA1-ELISA appeared to be highly specific and sensitive for direct detection of H9N2 antibodies in serum samples.