Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), have revolutionized our understanding of molecule'surface interactions. The high resolution and versatility of SPM techniques have helped elucidate the morphology of adsorbed surfactant layers, facilitated the study of electronically conductive single molecules and biomolecules connected to metal substrates, and allowed direct observation of real-time processes such as in situ DNA hybridization and drug'cell interactions. These examples illustrate the power that SPM possesses to study (bio)molecules on surfaces and will be discussed in depth in this review.
Thordarson, P., Atkin, R., Kalle, W., Warr, G. G., & Braet, F. (2006). Developments in using scanning probe microscopy to study molecules on surfaces: from thin films and single-molecule conductivity to drug-living cell interactions. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 59(6), 359-375. https://doi.org/10.1071/CH06043