Substance abuse disorders continue to be problematic in society and remain a serious health problem. Existing treatment approaches provide benefits, although many individuals do not respond to treatment or experience relapse. Schema therapy represents an alternative treatment approach for which there is mounting evidence, particularly in relation to the existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and their role in psychopathology. The current study assessed EMS and substance use in a nonclinical sample. EMSs were identified to be associated with substance use, with specific schemas being related to increased use of a range of substances. Findings suggest a role for assessing the existence of EMS in clinical samples presenting for substance abuse treatment.