In this paper we explore the concepts that form the framework for the different research projects that are reported in this special issue. All projects were part of the international Pedagogy, Education and Praxis research network. The main goal of this paper is to set the theoretical 'mis-en-scÃƒÂ¨ne' for the other papers in the issue. First, based on literature, we explore different meanings of concepts such as 'Education for All', 'social justice', 'praxis' and 'pedagogy'. Secondly, we explain why we rely on these concepts and, finally, we investigate the consequences of these decisions for the profession, including professionals in schools as well as in universities.