The effects of intraperitoneal aluminum chloride (1.5 mg aluminum/kg/day for 9 weeks) were studied in normal and uremic rats. Parameters measured included tissue aluminum, serum vitamin D metabolites, and quantitative bone histology. Aluminum administration increased tissue concentrations of this metal in uremic and nonuremic animals. Bone aluminum concentrations were higher in uremic rats (121 ± 27 mg/kg compared to 47 ± 4), whereas liver values were higher in the nonuremic group (175 ± 47 mg/kg compared to 100 ± 36). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were reduced in uremia, but aluminum was without apparent effect on any vitamin D metabolite. Aluminum, in the doses administered, caused no skeletal changes in nonuremic animals. Some uremic, non-aluminum-treated rats developed osteomalacia and marrow fibrosis. However, osteomalacia was more severe and the osteoclast count was higher in the uremic, aluminum-treated rats. In this group of animals the mineral apposition rate was reduced at the metaphyseal endosteum but increased at the periosteum, indicating different control mechanisms at the two sites.