Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the exercise programme on the quality of life of prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. Methods: A randomized controlled, parallel trial was conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 on 80 PCa survivors. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (n = 40 in each group). The exercise programme was designed based on the self-management approach (SMA). The intervention group participated in a 12-week exercise programme consisting of one session of group exercise and three sessions of individual exercise per week using exercise facilities in the community. Data were collected using the quality of life questionnaires and the follow-up checklist. Results: In the intervention group, statistically significant improvements in physical, role, emotional, social and sexual functions were reported. Also, the patients in this group reported reduced fatigue, insomnia, constipation, diarrhoea, urinary, bowel and hormonal treatment-related symptoms in comparison with before the exercise programme (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Nurses are suggested to plan for improving the participation of PCa survivors in exercise programmes using exercise facilities in the community in order to reduce the complications of treatment and improve their quality of life.