Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

G. Scott Snyder, T. Gibson Gaylord, Frederic T. Barrows, Kenneth Overturf, Kenneth D. Cain, Rodney A. Hill, Ronald W. Hardy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fish meal may contain unknown growth factors that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-²-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. A 9-week feeding study was conducted comparing diet FM, a 100% fish meal protein control diet, to fish fed three plant protein diets: diet SPI, 100% of the fish meal replaced with soy protein isolate; diet SPI + AA, diet SPI supplemented with methionine, lysine, threonine and glycine to diet FM levels; and diet CSN, diet SPI + AA supplemented with carnosine. Feeding diet SPI resulted in significant differences in feed conversion ratios (FCR), percent gain and protein retention efficiencies relative to fish fed diet FM. Feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in FCRs, percent gains and protein retention efficiencies that were not significantly different from fish fed diet FM. Fish fed diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle ratio (MR) and feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in increased intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) relative to fish fed diet FM. Supplementing carnosine to an all-plant protein diet resulted in elevated plasma carnosine and increased muscle free pool anserine. Feeding diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle development and increased calpain induced proteolysis. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not significantly improve the 100% plant protein diets in regard to the measured growth characteristics above the amino acid supplemented treatments and other unidentified factors may be limiting in the diet causing the reductions in MR and elevated IPFR. Highlights º Carnosine supplementation does not improve growth performance of trout fed an all-plant-protein diet. º Cellular muscle development was not enhanced by carnosine supplementation. º Feeding trout an all-plant-protein diet results in increased muscle protein degradation via calpain induced proteolysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-81
Number of pages10
JournalAquaculture
Volume338-341
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2012

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Carnosine
Plant Proteins
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Diet
Fishes
Proteolysis
Meals
Muscles
Calpain
Muscle Development
Trout
Anserine

Cite this

Snyder, G. Scott ; Gaylord, T. Gibson ; Barrows, Frederic T. ; Overturf, Kenneth ; Cain, Kenneth D. ; Hill, Rodney A. ; Hardy, Ronald W. / Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In: Aquaculture. 2012 ; Vol. 338-341. pp. 72-81.
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abstract = "Fish meal may contain unknown growth factors that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-²-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. A 9-week feeding study was conducted comparing diet FM, a 100{\%} fish meal protein control diet, to fish fed three plant protein diets: diet SPI, 100{\%} of the fish meal replaced with soy protein isolate; diet SPI + AA, diet SPI supplemented with methionine, lysine, threonine and glycine to diet FM levels; and diet CSN, diet SPI + AA supplemented with carnosine. Feeding diet SPI resulted in significant differences in feed conversion ratios (FCR), percent gain and protein retention efficiencies relative to fish fed diet FM. Feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in FCRs, percent gains and protein retention efficiencies that were not significantly different from fish fed diet FM. Fish fed diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle ratio (MR) and feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in increased intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) relative to fish fed diet FM. Supplementing carnosine to an all-plant protein diet resulted in elevated plasma carnosine and increased muscle free pool anserine. Feeding diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle development and increased calpain induced proteolysis. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not significantly improve the 100{\%} plant protein diets in regard to the measured growth characteristics above the amino acid supplemented treatments and other unidentified factors may be limiting in the diet causing the reductions in MR and elevated IPFR. Highlights º Carnosine supplementation does not improve growth performance of trout fed an all-plant-protein diet. º Cellular muscle development was not enhanced by carnosine supplementation. º Feeding trout an all-plant-protein diet results in increased muscle protein degradation via calpain induced proteolysis.",
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Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). / Snyder, G. Scott; Gaylord, T. Gibson; Barrows, Frederic T.; Overturf, Kenneth; Cain, Kenneth D.; Hill, Rodney A.; Hardy, Ronald W.

In: Aquaculture, Vol. 338-341, 29.03.2012, p. 72-81.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

AU - Snyder, G. Scott

AU - Gaylord, T. Gibson

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AB - Fish meal may contain unknown growth factors that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-²-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. A 9-week feeding study was conducted comparing diet FM, a 100% fish meal protein control diet, to fish fed three plant protein diets: diet SPI, 100% of the fish meal replaced with soy protein isolate; diet SPI + AA, diet SPI supplemented with methionine, lysine, threonine and glycine to diet FM levels; and diet CSN, diet SPI + AA supplemented with carnosine. Feeding diet SPI resulted in significant differences in feed conversion ratios (FCR), percent gain and protein retention efficiencies relative to fish fed diet FM. Feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in FCRs, percent gains and protein retention efficiencies that were not significantly different from fish fed diet FM. Fish fed diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle ratio (MR) and feeding diets SPI + AA and CSN resulted in increased intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) relative to fish fed diet FM. Supplementing carnosine to an all-plant protein diet resulted in elevated plasma carnosine and increased muscle free pool anserine. Feeding diets SPI, SPI + AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle development and increased calpain induced proteolysis. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not significantly improve the 100% plant protein diets in regard to the measured growth characteristics above the amino acid supplemented treatments and other unidentified factors may be limiting in the diet causing the reductions in MR and elevated IPFR. Highlights º Carnosine supplementation does not improve growth performance of trout fed an all-plant-protein diet. º Cellular muscle development was not enhanced by carnosine supplementation. º Feeding trout an all-plant-protein diet results in increased muscle protein degradation via calpain induced proteolysis.

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