Gall induction by arthropods results in a range of morphological and physiological changes in their host plants. We examined changes in gas exchange, nutrients, and energetics related to the presence of stem galls on Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) induced by the moth, Epiblema strenuana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We compared the effects of galls on P. hysterophorus in the rosette (young), pre-flowering (mature), and flowering (old) stages. Gall induction reduced the leaf-water potential, especially in flowering stage plants. In young and mature stage plants, galling reduced photosynthetic rates considerably. Gall induction reduced the transpiration rate mostly in mature plants, and this also diminished stomatal conductance. Energy levels in most galls and in shoot tissue immediately below the galls were significantly higher than the energy levels in stem tissue immediately above the galls, indicating that the gall acts as a mobilizing sink for the moth. Galling had significant effects on concentrations of minerals such as boron, chloride, magnesium, and zinc. In galled plants, reduced leaf-water potential and reduced rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance may have altered mineral element levels. These observed effects demonstrate that E. strenuana has the potential to regulate P. hysterophorus.
Florentine, S. K., Raman, A., & Dhileepan, K. (2005). Effects of Gall Induction by Epiblema Strenuana on Gas Exchange, Nutrients, and Energetics in Parthenium Hysterophorus. BioControl, 50(5), 787-801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-004-5525-3