Conclusion: Despite no alteration in baseline IL-6 and significantly smaller reductions in measures of adipose tissue as compared with the aerobic training group, only resistance exercise training resulted in significant attenuation of CRP concentration.Purpose: To determine the effects of 10 wk of resistance or aerobic exercise training on interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Further, to determine pretraining and post training associations between alterations of IL-6 and CRP and alterations of total body fat mass (TB'FM), intra abdominal fat mass (IA-FM), and total body lean mass (TB'LM). Methods: A sample of 102 sedentary subjects were assigned to a resistance group (n = 35), an aerobic group (n = 41), or a control group (n = 26). Before and after intervention, subjects were involved indual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscular strength and aerobic fitness, measurements and further provided a resting fasted venous blood sample for measures of IL-6, CRP, cholesterol profile, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The resistance and the aerobic groups completed a respective 10-wk supervised and periodized training program, whereas the control group maintained sedentary lifestyle and dietary patterns. Results: Both exercise training programs did not reduce IL-6; however, the resistance and the aerobic groups reduced CRP by 32.8% (P G 0.05) and 16.1% (P = 0.06), respectively. At baseline, CRP was positively correlated with IL-6 (r = 0.35),(TB'FM) (r = 0.36), and IA-FM (r = 0.31) and was inversely correlated with aerobic fitness measures (all r values Q '0.24). Compared with the resistance and the control groups, the aerobic group exhibited significant (P G 0.05) improvements in all aerobic fitness measures and significant reductions in IA-FM (7.4%) and body mass (1.1%). Compared with the aerobic and the control groups, the resistance group significantly (P G 0.05) improved TB'FM (3.7%) and upper (46.3%) and lower (56.6%) body strength.