The majority of resistance training (RT) research with children to date has focused on pre-adolescents and the safety and efficacy of this type of training rather than the potential metabolic health benefits. Our objectives, using computerized databases, were (i) to systematically review studies utilizing RT interventions with children and adolescents <18 years; (ii) to investigate the metabolic health outcomes (adiposity, lipids, insulin, glucose) associated with RT; (iii) to provide recommendations for future investigations. A total of 12 studies met the review criteria. There is only a small amount of evidence that children and adolescents may derive metabolic health-related adaptations from supervised RT. However, methodological limitations within the body of this literature make it difficult to determine the optimal RT prescription for metabolic fitness in children and adolescents, and the extent and duration of such benefits. More robustly designed single modality randomized controlled trials utilizing standardized reporting and precise outcome assessments are required to determine the extent of health outcomes attributable solely to RT and to enable the development of evidence-based obesity prevention and treatment strategies in this cohort.