The combination of continuous cereal cropping, tillage and stubble removal reduces soil fertility and increases soil erosion onsloping land. The objective of the present study was to assessment soil fertility changes under stubble removal and stubble retentionin the Loess Plateau where soil is prone to severe erosion. It was indicated that soil N increased a lot for and two stubble retentiontreatments had the higher N balance at the end of two rotations. Soil K balance performed that soil K was in deficient for alltreatments and two stubble retention treatments had lower deficit K. The treatments with stubble retention produced highergrain yields than the stubble removal treatments. It was concluded that stubble retention should be conducted to increase cropsproductivity, improve soil fertility as well as agriculture sustainability in the Loess plateau, China.