Depletion and/or degradation of natural resources, increasing farm labour scarcity, and high production cost are major threats to the rice-wheat cropping system of north-west India. Conservation agriculture (CA) is a potential solution which can be achieved by switching from puddling then transplanting of rice to dry seeding (DSR), together with changing from conventional tillage (CT) to zero tillage (ZT) for wheat with surface retention of rice residues. Whether the use of ZT for both crops confers additional benefits to either crop is not known. The effects of surface retention of rice residues in wheat on the subsequent DSR crop are also unknown, nor how this is affected by tillage for DSR. Therefore, a field study was conducted during 2012-14 to investigate the interactions between tillage for rice and wheat (CT, ZT), and rice residue management (removed, retained on the soil surface), on the performance of a dry seeded rice-wheat system.