This study draws on person−environment fit theory to examine the relationships between training effectiveness, task performance and work environment. Data were collected from 486 participants in public hospitals across three states in Australia. Results show that there are significant relationships between training effectiveness and work environment, training effectiveness and task performance, and work environment and task performance. In addition, work environment mediates the relationship between training effectiveness and task performance. Further, this study establishes the moderation effect that non-mandatory training has on the relationship between work environment and task performance. This paper discusses the implications to person−environment fit theory, practical contributions, and limitations and directions for future research.