Environment threats to groundwater in Lahore area

G. Z Hassan, F R Hassan, Saleem Akhtar

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paper


In Pakistan, about 80% population in big cities do not have access to clean water. In Lahore which is the provincial capital and 2nd largest city of Pakistan. The demand for water supply has increased with the passage of time due to increase in population and industrial growth. This excessive demand has put the aquifer under serious stress as the only source of domestic and industrial water supply in the city is groundwater. Groundwater resource is being over exploited which with serious consequences on the hydrodynamics of aquifer along with other scioeconomic issues. In the present study a network of about 60 piezometers has been installed in Lahore city area and along the Ravi River to monitor the groundwater quality and levels to observe the aquifer behaviour. About 16 test holes have been drilled-up to depth of 100 ft in the city area to explore the subsurface lithology and soil parameters. Climate data have been obtained from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Potential environmental threats to groundwater in the Lahore aquifer have been identified as over pumpage, urbanization, industrial effluents, Ravi River (low flow and sludge carrier), air pollution (vehicular and industrial emissions), sewage and street runoff etc. Keeping in view the current situation some possible measures for management of groundwater have been proposed. Low flows in the Ravi River increases the pollutant concentration to the level dangerous for sustaining aquatic life. The mixing of effluent in huge quantity without any treatment in Ravi is a serious threat to the environment. River Ravi has turned into a sludge carrier for Lahore city. Waste water is being disposed of into it without any treatment. Two possible options to reduce the environmental degradation in the river, are either to treat waste water before disposal or to dilute the waste water concentration by releasing more freshwater into the river. Similarly, the best possible option for replenishment of the aquifer is the artificial recharge by rainfall harvesting or by some canal diversion.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWorld Environment Day, Pakistan Engineering Congress, Lahore, Pakistan
Number of pages34
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventPakistan Engineering Congress World Environment Day - Lahore, Pakistan
Duration: 05 Jun 201405 Jun 2014
https://pecongress.org.pk/detail.php?cat_id=427&subcat_id=631&maincat_name=News Journals&cat_name=Volume 45 No.3-4


ConferencePakistan Engineering Congress World Environment Day
Abbreviated titleEffects of Climate Change on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and its Mitigation
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