Environmental issues and concerns of groundwater in Lahore

Ghulam Zakir Hassan, Faiz Raza Hassan, Saleem Akhtar

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paperpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


In Pakistan, about 80% population in large cities and do not have access to clean water. Demand for fresh water supply has increased many times to meet domestic and industrial requirements. Lahore is the second largest populated city of Pakistan with estimated population of 10 million, with an area of 1014 km2. It is located on the alluvial plain of Indus Basin on an altitude ranging between 682 ft. to 698 ft. above mean sea level and is bounded by Ravi river in the North West and BRBD Canal on the east and average annual rainfal lrecorded is about to 675 mm. Groundwater is the only source of domestic and industrial use in the city. The un-planned excessive pumpage of groundwater as 1645 cu sec has threatened aquifer depletion along with other socio-economic issues. After creation of Pakistan, the groundwater level in Lahore city was as 15-16 feet which has now reached its depth 100 feet. Under the circumstances, IRI starts a monitoring study, in this regard to get the first hand awareness of the situation and to suggest some remedial measure there at and 60 piezometers have been installed in Lahore city area and along Ravi river to monitor the time rate changes in groundwater levels and its quality. These Piezometers have been installed in batteries (3 in each) at the different depths to monitor the vertical profile and quality of groundwater. The authors have observe a great threats to groundwater in the Lahore aquifer identifying as over pumpage, industrial effluents, precipitation of air pollution, sewage and street runoff etc. Another factor of this research work is that the groundwater levels fluctuate with the river gauge which indicates that Ravi river is contributing towards aquifer recharge whereas groundwater levels in Lahore city is falling at the rate of 2.5 ft. per year. Moreover, the quality of groundwater assessment in the river reach from Ravi Syphon to Mohlanwal has been made and is found the worst near Shahdra (Lahore city).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Pakistan academy of ciences (PAS)
Subtitle of host publicationB. Life and environmental sciences
PublisherPakistan Academy of Sciences
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventUMT National Multidisciplinary Engineering Conference: NMEC-15 - Faletti's Hotel, Lahore, Pakistan
Duration: 20 Nov 201521 Nov 2015


ConferenceUMT National Multidisciplinary Engineering Conference
Internet address


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