The present paper aims to review the epidemiological literature regarding temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in order to determine which subgroups of the general population are more likely to suffer from TMD and why this might be the case. A literature search from the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Database for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Chosen articles that fulfilled the search criteria were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. A total of 42 articles were included and grouped into gender, age and psychological influences on TMD. It was found that TMD is the most common orofacial pain condition of non-dental origin. From the studies assessed, a two-to four-fold higher prevalence of TMD in women was noted with the prevalence peaking between the ages of 25-45. The higher prevalence rates for women indicated that possible biological, psychological, and/or social factors associated with the female gender increased the risk of TMD. It is evident that TMD is a significant and increasingly prevalent disorder found within the general population that appears more commonly in women and more common during the reproductive years. The available data highlights the need for further research on etiologic factors associated with TMD.