Evaluation of the bifactor structure of the dispositional hope scale

Rapson Gomez, Suzanne Mclaren, Mersey Sharp, Cara Smith, Kate Hearn, Leah Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


The Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS; Snyder et al., 1991) is composed of items assessing an individual's perception of his or her agency and pathways. This study examined support for the bifactor structure and relation of the factors in this model with depressive symptoms. It also examined cross-gender measurement invariance for the bifactor model. A community sample of 413 women and 257 men completed the DHS. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated more support for the bifactor model than the 1- and 2-factor models. Results also indicated full measurement invariance across gender for the bifactor and the 2-factor models. The general and the specific agency factors, but not the specific pathways factor, correlated with depressive symptoms. The better support for the bifactor model suggests that ideally hope has to be measured and examined by factors reflecting high covariance for agency and pathways, and also factors reflecting unique variances for agency and pathways. The support for full cross-gender measurement invariance indicated that there are no differences in measurement and scaling properties for the DHS across ratings provided by women and men, and therefore the DHS ratings can be scored in the same way for women and men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-199
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number2
Early online date04 Aug 2014
Publication statusPublished - 04 Mar 2015


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