Evidence of an emerging lorikeet-associated beak and feather disease virus

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paperpeer-review

Abstract

Abstract
Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is well known for its wide host range, high genetic diversity and the capaci-ty of flexible host switching or cross species transmission. Until now, phylogenetic analysis of BFDV genomes sug-gested host generalism and very shallow host based di-vergence with its origins in Australia. Budgerigars (Melop-sittacus undulatus) host the most basal BFDV genotypes suggesting that the global spread of this infection may have occurred in the mid-19th century associated with the international trade budgerigars as pet birds. A broad-er hypothesis would be that the parrot subfamily Lori-inae, to which the budgerigar, lorikeets and fig parrots belong, could be the Gondwanan antediluvian source of BFDV. Accordingly we analysed BFDV circulating in Aus-tralian budgerigars and lorikeets in order to investigate their potential role as distributors of BFDV across Austral-asia as well as to ascertain the likely threats they pose to vulnerable and endangered psittacine bird species. Phy-logenetic and population genetic analyses of full length BFDV sequence data from wild lorikeets (n=34) and cap-tive budgerigars (n=5) were compared with all available published full length BFDV genomes. Strong support for host tribe specific clustering was detected among lorikeet genotypes while budgerigar genotypes were basal and found in a wide variety of genetic clades with a diverse host-species mosaic. Within Australia, the BFDV genome in wild lorikeets occurred within a distinct subpopulation structure, genetically segregated from those infecting other psittacine hosts with no evidence of detectable gene flow and inter-population host switch events. The phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian lorikeets maintain a deeply host adapted BFDV lineage introduced relatively recently from a foreign origin. The existence of genetically interlinked host based minor subpopula-tions demonstrates that BFDV genotypes evolved inde-pendently within each host with frequent episodes of cross species transmissions in the past.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the UPAV and AAVAC Combined Annual Conference 2015
Place of PublicationAustralia
PublisherAssociation of Avian Veterinarians, Australasian Committee (AAVAC)
Pages77-90
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventUnusual Pets and Avian Veterinarians (UPAV) Special Interest Group and the Association of Avian Veterinarians Australasian Committee (AAVAC) Combined Annual Conference 2015
- Novotel Sydney Central, Sydney, Australia
Duration: 06 Sep 201511 Sep 2015
https://web.archive.org/web/20151009121042/http://www.ava.com.au/sites/default/files/AVA_website/pdf/2015-AAVAC-UPAV-handbook.pdf (Conference handbook)

Conference

ConferenceUnusual Pets and Avian Veterinarians (UPAV) Special Interest Group and the Association of Avian Veterinarians Australasian Committee (AAVAC) Combined Annual Conference 2015
Abbreviated titleAdvancing and Promoting Avian Medicine and Stewardship
Country/TerritoryAustralia
CitySydney
Period06/09/1511/09/15
Internet address

Grant Number

  • FT120100242

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