Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide, pH and leukotriene B4 are associated with lower airway inflammation and airway cytology in the horse

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a noninvasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In human subjects, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation (LAI) while controlling for sampling and environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical, endoscopic and airway cytological findings from 47 horses were compared with EBC pH and concentrations of H2 O2 and LTB4 by univariate and multivariable analyses. Dichotomous (presence/absence of airway inflammation) and continuous outcome variables (differential cell counts in tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) were evaluated and potential effects of collection and methodological factors were included. RESULTS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations were higher in horses with LAI and both were positively associated with the percentage of neutrophils in BALF (P<0.05). Mast cell percentage in BALF was negatively associated with EBC pH, and BALF eosinophil percentage was positively associated with EBC LTB4 (P<0.05). Ambient temperature, relative humidity and assay methodology significantly impacted some analytes. MAIN LIMITATIONS: LAI is challenging to categorise due to a variety of clinical and cytological phenotypes. Although the study was designed to overcome this limitation, numbers of horses were small in some categories. CONCLUSIONS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations are altered by airway inflammation, suggesting a role for these biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of airway disease. Environmental and methodological factors can influence these biomarkers and should be considered in the interpretation of results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-32
Number of pages9
JournalEquine Veterinary Journal
Volume51
Issue number1
Early online dateJun 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

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leukotrienes
Leukotriene B4
cell biology
Hydrogen Peroxide
Horses
hydrogen peroxide
Cell Biology
inflammation
Inflammation
horses
biomarkers
Biomarkers
disease surveillance
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
asthma
mast cells
eosinophils
Humidity
respiratory system
Eosinophils

Cite this

@article{8ca5ec89fe9e4336b8e95915614c3b09,
title = "Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide, pH and leukotriene B4 are associated with lower airway inflammation and airway cytology in the horse",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a noninvasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In human subjects, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation (LAI) while controlling for sampling and environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical, endoscopic and airway cytological findings from 47 horses were compared with EBC pH and concentrations of H2 O2 and LTB4 by univariate and multivariable analyses. Dichotomous (presence/absence of airway inflammation) and continuous outcome variables (differential cell counts in tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) were evaluated and potential effects of collection and methodological factors were included. RESULTS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations were higher in horses with LAI and both were positively associated with the percentage of neutrophils in BALF (P<0.05). Mast cell percentage in BALF was negatively associated with EBC pH, and BALF eosinophil percentage was positively associated with EBC LTB4 (P<0.05). Ambient temperature, relative humidity and assay methodology significantly impacted some analytes. MAIN LIMITATIONS: LAI is challenging to categorise due to a variety of clinical and cytological phenotypes. Although the study was designed to overcome this limitation, numbers of horses were small in some categories. CONCLUSIONS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations are altered by airway inflammation, suggesting a role for these biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of airway disease. Environmental and methodological factors can influence these biomarkers and should be considered in the interpretation of results.",
author = "{du Preez}, Surita and Sharanne Raidal and Gregory Doran and Matthew Prescott and Kristopher Hughes",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/evj.12979",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "24--32",
journal = "Equine veterinary journal. Supplement",
issn = "0425-1644",
publisher = "British Equine Veterinary Association",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide, pH and leukotriene B4 are associated with lower airway inflammation and airway cytology in the horse

AU - du Preez, Surita

AU - Raidal, Sharanne

AU - Doran, Gregory

AU - Prescott, Matthew

AU - Hughes, Kristopher

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a noninvasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In human subjects, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation (LAI) while controlling for sampling and environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical, endoscopic and airway cytological findings from 47 horses were compared with EBC pH and concentrations of H2 O2 and LTB4 by univariate and multivariable analyses. Dichotomous (presence/absence of airway inflammation) and continuous outcome variables (differential cell counts in tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) were evaluated and potential effects of collection and methodological factors were included. RESULTS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations were higher in horses with LAI and both were positively associated with the percentage of neutrophils in BALF (P<0.05). Mast cell percentage in BALF was negatively associated with EBC pH, and BALF eosinophil percentage was positively associated with EBC LTB4 (P<0.05). Ambient temperature, relative humidity and assay methodology significantly impacted some analytes. MAIN LIMITATIONS: LAI is challenging to categorise due to a variety of clinical and cytological phenotypes. Although the study was designed to overcome this limitation, numbers of horses were small in some categories. CONCLUSIONS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations are altered by airway inflammation, suggesting a role for these biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of airway disease. Environmental and methodological factors can influence these biomarkers and should be considered in the interpretation of results.

AB - BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a noninvasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In human subjects, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation (LAI) while controlling for sampling and environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical, endoscopic and airway cytological findings from 47 horses were compared with EBC pH and concentrations of H2 O2 and LTB4 by univariate and multivariable analyses. Dichotomous (presence/absence of airway inflammation) and continuous outcome variables (differential cell counts in tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) were evaluated and potential effects of collection and methodological factors were included. RESULTS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations were higher in horses with LAI and both were positively associated with the percentage of neutrophils in BALF (P<0.05). Mast cell percentage in BALF was negatively associated with EBC pH, and BALF eosinophil percentage was positively associated with EBC LTB4 (P<0.05). Ambient temperature, relative humidity and assay methodology significantly impacted some analytes. MAIN LIMITATIONS: LAI is challenging to categorise due to a variety of clinical and cytological phenotypes. Although the study was designed to overcome this limitation, numbers of horses were small in some categories. CONCLUSIONS: EBC pH and H2 O2 concentrations are altered by airway inflammation, suggesting a role for these biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of airway disease. Environmental and methodological factors can influence these biomarkers and should be considered in the interpretation of results.

U2 - 10.1111/evj.12979

DO - 10.1111/evj.12979

M3 - Article

C2 - 29917256

VL - 51

SP - 24

EP - 32

JO - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

JF - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

SN - 0425-1644

IS - 1

ER -