To improve the protein nutritional quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) meal, further investigation of the effects of processing conditions and post-production treatments is desirable. The impact of barrel dry heat temperature (20 °C (cold press) and 100 °C (expeller)) and moist heat pressure (MHP) duration time on general nutritional properties, Maillard reaction product (MRP) formation, in vitro protein degradability, and molecular and microscopic structural characteristics of canola meals were investigated. Increased MHP duration reduced (p < 0.05) dry matter, soluble protein, rapidly degradable protein, yellowness (early MRP), whiteness (late MRPs), absorbance at 294 nm (intermediate MRPs), and amide I; and increased (p < 0.05) non-protein N, neutral detergent fibre, neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (CP), intermediately and slowly degradable protein, in vitro effective CP degradability, redness, degree of colour change, and browning. Increased dry heat temperature reduced (p < 0.01) CP and rapidly degradable protein, constricted amide II, reduced (p < 0.05) protein solubility in 0.5% KOH and increased (p < 0.05) acid-detergent fibre and intermediate MRPs. Browning index and redness exhibited potential as rapid indicators of effective CP degradability and soluble protein, respectively. Dry heat and MHP altered (p < 0.05) lipid-related functional groups. Dry heat affected napin solubility, and MHP altered cruciferin and napin solubility. Application of MHP induced the formation of proteolysis-resistant protein aggregates with crevices containing oil bodies. Induced changes may impact the supply of proteins and amino acids and subsequently the yield and composition (protein and lipid) of milk produced by dairy cows.