Factors affecting psychosocial and motor development in 3-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing

Greg Leigh, Teresa Y.C. Ching, Kathryn Crowe, Linda Cupples, Vivienne Marnane, Mark Seeto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
214 Downloads (Pure)


Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children's development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale. © The Author 2015.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-342
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015


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