Factors influencing the choice of technique to launder funds: The APPT framework

Milind Tiwari, Jamie Ferrill, Adrian Gepp, Kuldeep Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper proposes a new framework to provide insights into the techniques launderers adopt to clean illicitfunds, drawing on existing literature and theories including rational choice, public value, structural coupling,and stakeholder. The proposed APPT framework is named after four factors that explain the choice of techniques: the Actors involved, Predicate crime, the Purpose of laundering, and Technological innovations. While thecurrent literature on money laundering primarily directs attention toward aspects such as regulatory frameworks, the stages of money laundering, and ways of detecting it, there is a lack of understanding about thereasons underlying a launderer’s choice of techniques. This paper endeavors to reduce this gap in the literatureand contribute to understanding the motivation of money launderers for the benefit of investigations. The framework offers new insights for the money laundering literature and has implications for neophytes, practitioners, and institutions teaching financial crime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Economic Criminology
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


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