Galls and gall-inducing arthropods: ecological issues and evolutionary problems

CW Schaefer, A Raman, TM Withers

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperChapter


Although galls occur in great abundance and in great variety throughout the world, the ability to induce galls has arisen rarely among major phyletic lines of arthropods. At least two prerequisites of a gall inducer seem to: small size; and along prior history of the inducer's ancestors with a particular group of plants. The possession of these characteristics may help explain why certain groups (e.g., Cynipidae, Cecidomyiidae)contain many gall inducers, and other more speciose groups contain far fewer (e.g., Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera'Heteroptera). Once induced, a gall becomes an open ecological niche, to which other arthropods may become adapted as inquilines, parasites, predators.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIn Biology, Ecology, and Evolution of Gall-inducing Arthropods
EditorsToni M Withers Toni M M Withers
Place of PublicationEnfield, New Hampshire, USA
PublisherScience Publishers, Inc
ISBN (Print)1578082625
Publication statusPublished - 2005


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