Although galls occur in great abundance and in great variety throughout the world, the ability to induce galls has arisen rarely among major phyletic lines of arthropods. At least two prerequisites of a gall inducer seem to: small size; and along prior history of the inducer's ancestors with a particular group of plants. The possession of these characteristics may help explain why certain groups (e.g., Cynipidae, Cecidomyiidae)contain many gall inducers, and other more speciose groups contain far fewer (e.g., Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera'Heteroptera). Once induced, a gall becomes an open ecological niche, to which other arthropods may become adapted as inquilines, parasites, predators.
|Title of host publication||In Biology, Ecology, and Evolution of Gall-inducing Arthropods|
|Editors||Toni M Withers Toni M M Withers|
|Place of Publication||Enfield, New Hampshire, USA|
|Publisher||Science Publishers, Inc|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|