In this study, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp., and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by downregulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, and Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated. Serum lipid compositions showed ERB supplement exhibited a more efficient effect on lowering serum sphingolipids, which was closely associated with the status of insulin resistance. Consistently, genes of Ppp2r3b and Prkcg, involved in the function of ceramides in blocking insulin action, were also downregulated following ERB intervention. Enriched GABA and phenolic acids were supposed to be responsible for the health-beneficial effects.