An optimized method for the quantitation of volatile compounds responsible for off-aromas, such as earthy odors, found in wine and grapes was developed. The method involved a fast and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC–MS) for simultaneous determination of 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 3-octanone, fenchone, 1-octen-3-one, trans-2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, geosmin, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and pentachloroanisole. The extraction of the temperature and time were optimized using response surface methodology in both wine base (WB) and grape base (GB). Low limits of detection (0.1–5 ng/L in WB and 0.05–1.6 in GB) and quantitation (0.3–17 in WB and 0.2–6.2 in GB) with good recoveries (83–131%) and repeatability [4.3–9.8% coefficient of variation (CV) in WB and 5.1–11.1% CV in GB] and reproducibility (3.6–10.2 in WB and 1.9–10.9 in GB) indicate that the method has excellent sensitivity and is suitable for the analysis of these off-flavor compounds in wine and grape juice samples.
Sadoughi, N., Schmidtke, L., Antalick, G., Blackman, J., & Steel, C. (2015). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimized using response surface modeling for the quantitation of fungal off-flavors in grapes and wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(11), 2877-2885. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf505444r