The study examined differences in gender stereotypes, restrained drinking and self-efficacy for alcohol refusal between moderate and high risk drinkers among a university sample of 301 women and 118 men. Both female and male high risk drinkers displayed a response conflict, typified by high scores on restrained drinking but low scores on self-efficacy. This pattern of response conflict was more pronounced for high risk drinking women, who also identified poorly with feminine traits (e.g. 'nurturing', 'love children', 'appreciative'). The findings are discussed in relation to society's double standard that accepts intoxication in men but condemns it in women.
Ricciardelli, L., Connor, J., Williams, R., & Young, R. (2001). Gender stereotypes and drinking cognitions as indicators of moderate and high risk drinking among young women and men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 61(2), 129-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00131-9