Sustainable canola production is essential to meet growing human demands for vegetable oil, biodiesel, and meal for stock feed markets. Blackleg, caused by the fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans is a devastating disease that can lead to significant yield loss in many canola production regions worldwide. Breakdown of race-specific resistance to L. maculans in commercial cultivars poses a constant threat to the canola industry. To identify new alleles, especially for quantitative resistance (QR), we analyzed 177 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from an RP04/Ag-Outback cross. DH lines were evaluated for QR under field conditions in three experiments conducted at Wagga Wagga (2013, 2014) and Lake Green (2015), and under shade house conditions using the ‘ascospore shower’ test. DH lines were also characterized for qualitative R gene-mediated resistance via cotyledon tests with two differential single spore isolates, IBCN17 and IBCN76, under glasshouse conditions. Based on 18,851 DArTseq markers, a linkage map representing 2,019 unique marker bins was constructed and then utilized for QTL detection. Marker regression analysis identified 22 significant marker associations for resistance, allowing identification of two race-specific resistance R genes, Rlm3 and Rlm4, and 21 marker associations for QR loci. At least three SNP associations for QR were repeatedly detected on chromosomes A03, A07 and C04 across phenotyping environments. Physical mapping of markers linked with these consistent QR loci on the B. napus genome assembly revealed their localization in close proximity of the candidate genes of B. napus BnaA03g26760D (A03), BnaA07g20240D (A07) and BnaC04g02040D (C04). Annotation of these candidate genes revealed their association with protein kinase and jumonji proteins implicated in defense resistance. Both Rlm3 and Rlm4 genes identified in this DH population did not show any association with resistance loci detected under either field and/or shade house conditions (ascospore shower) suggesting that both genes are ineffective in conferring resistance to L. maculans in Australian field conditions. Taken together, our study identified sequence-based molecular markers for dissecting R and QR loci to L. maculans in a canola DH population from the RP04/Ag-Outback cross.