Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity restricts productivity and profitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops grownon acid soils worldwide. Continued gains will be obtained by identifying superior alleles and novel Al3+ resistance locithat can be incorporated into breeding programs. We used association mapping to identify genomic regions associatedwith Al3+ resistance using 1055 accessions of common wheat from different geographic regions of the world and 178 polymorphicdiversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Bayesian analyses based on genetic distance matrices classified theseaccessions into 12 subgroups. Genome-wide association analyses detected markers that were significantly associated withAl3+ resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B. Some of these genomicregions correspond to previously identified loci for Al3+ resistance, whereas others appear to be novel. Among themarkers targeting TaALMT1 (the major Al3+-resistance gene located on chromosome 4D), those that detected alleles in the promoter explained most of the phenotypic variance for Al3+ resistance, which is consistent with this region controlling the level of TaALMT1 expression. These results demonstrate that genome-wide association mapping cannot only confirm known Al3+-resistance loci, such as those on chromsomes 4D and 4B, but they also highlight the utility of this technique in identifying novel resistance loci.