Genomic characterisation of a highly divergent siadenovirus (Psittacine siadenovirus f) from the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot (neophema chrysogaster)

Ajani Athukorala, David N. Phalen, Ashutosh Das, Karla J. Helbig, Jade K. Forwood, Subir Sarker

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Siadenoviruses have been detected in wild and captive birds worldwide. Only nine siadenoviruses have been fully sequenced; however, partial sequences for 30 others, many of these from wild Australian birds, are also described. Some siadenoviruses, e.g., the turkey siadenovirus A, can cause disease; however, most cause subclinical infections. An example of a siadenovirus causing predominately subclinical infections is psittacine siadenovirus 2, proposed name psittacine siadenovirus F (PsSiAdV-F), which is enzootic in the captive breeding population of the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot (OBP, Neophema chrysogaster). Here, we have fully characterised PsSiAdV-F from an OBP. The PsSiAdV-F genome is 25,392 bp in length and contained 25 putative genes. The genome architecture of PsSiAdV-F exhibited characteristics similar to members within the genus Siadenovirus; however, the novel PsSiAdV-F genome was highly divergent, showing highest and lowest sequence similarity to skua siadenovirus A (57.1%) and psittacine siadenovirus D (31.1%), respectively. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the novel PsSiAdV-F genome positioned the virus into a phylogenetically distinct sub-clade with all other siadenoviruses and did not show any obvious close evolutionary relationship. Importantly, the resulted tress continually demonstrated that novel PsSiAdV-F evolved prior to all known members except the frog siadenovirus A in the evolution and possibly the ancestor of the avian siadenoviruses. To date, PsSiAdV-F has not been detected in wild parrots, so further studies screening PsSiAdV-F in wild Australian parrots and generating whole genome sequences of siadenoviruses of Australian native passerine species is recommended to fill the siadenovirus evolutionary gaps.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1714
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number9
Early online date28 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021


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