Genomic diversity and evolution, diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutics of the pandemic COVID-19 disease

M. Nazmul Hoque, Abed Chaudhury, M. Abdul Mannan Akanda, M. Anwar Hossain, Md Tofazzal Islam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by a novel evolutionarily divergent RNA virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and subsequently spreaded around the world. Genomic analyses revealed that this zoonotic virus may be evolved naturally but not a purposefully manipulated laboratory construct. However, currently available data are not sufficient to precisely conclude the origin of this fearsome virus. Comprehensive annotations of the whole-genomes revealed hundreds of nucleotides, and amino acids mutations, substitutions and/or deletions at different positions of the ever changing SARS-CoV-2 genome. The spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 possesses a functional polybasic (furin) cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary through the insertion of 12 nucleotides. It leads to the predicted acquisition of 3-O-linked glycan around the cleavage site. Although real-time RT-PCR methods targeting specific gene(s) have widely been used to diagnose the COVID-19 patients, however, recently developed more convenient, cheap, rapid, and specific diagnostic tools targeting antigens or CRISPR-Cas-mediated method or a newly developed plug and play method should be available for the resource-poor developing countries. A large number of candidate drugs, vaccines and therapies have shown great promise in early trials, however, these candidates of preventive or therapeutic agents have to pass a long path of trials before being released for the practical application against COVID-19. This review updates current knowledge on origin, genomic evolution, development of the diagnostic tools, and the preventive or therapeutic remedies of the COVID-19. We also discussed the future scopes for research, effective management, and surveillance of the newly emerged COVID-19 disease.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere9689
Pages (from-to)1-35
Number of pages35
JournalPEERJ
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes

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