Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1

Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Vanessa Andresiuk, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Robin B. Gasser, Joke van der Giessen, Luis Miguel González, Karen L. Haag, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Abdul Jabbar, David J. Jenkins, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Hossein Mirhendi, Selim M'rad, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Myriam Oudni-M'radNora Beatriz Pierangeli, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Sami Simsek, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Hein Sprong, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma

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Abstract

Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-742
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Volume48
Issue number9-10
Early online dateMay 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

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Kinkar, L., Laurimäe, T., Acosta-Jamett, G., Andresiuk, V., Balkaya, I., Casulli, A., Gasser, R. B., van der Giessen, J., González, L. M., Haag, K. L., Zait, H., Irshadullah, M., Jabbar, A., Jenkins, D. J., Kia, E. B., Manfredi, M. T., Mirhendi, H., M'rad, S., Rostami-Nejad, M., ... Saarma, U. (2018). Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1. International Journal for Parasitology, 48(9-10), 729-742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.03.006