Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions

The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan

Syed Khair, Shahbaz Mushtaq, Richard Culas, Muhammad Hafeez

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paper

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Abstract

In the upland Balochistan water markets appears to provide cushions against increasing water scarcity by averting damages to high value horticultural crops and also proving useful in enhancing water efficiently as it helps overcome the problem of over irrigation/miss use of water by facilitating selling the surplus/extra water and using purchased water more sparingly and efficiently. It is envisaged that groundwater play key role in sustaining high value crops and will continue to contribute in upland Balochistan.The study documents comprehensive analysis on informal groundwater marketing in upland Balochistan, Pakistan. Informal groundwater markets are emerging a feasible option to manage increasing water scarcity and declining water tables as a result of poor groundwater policies. First we evaluated the groundwater trading mechanism and later we empirically examined factors affecting the groundwater trading using logit econometric models. We did not observe any permanent groundwater transactions; only temporary groundwater exchange takes place. Two common transactions methods were noted ' water in exchange for given crop share and cash payment per hour (flat rate per hour). In all, 60% respondents reported selling water for crop share. This form of transaction method intensifies as we move from high altitude areas to low altitude areas because water and land are relatively scarce at higher uplands. In general, the crop sharing rates were 33% of the crop output. Water trading in cash transactions was practiced by 40% of respondents. The chargers per hour depend on the altitude, with an average price of Rs. 100, Rs.112, and Rs.205 per hour were reported at low, medium and high altitudes, respectively. This form of water marketing intensifies as we move from low to high altitude areas, mainly because of relatively abundant water and land in low altitude areas. The results of empirical models indicates that among others, cropping intensity, area under high value fruits, decline in watertable, tubewell reliability, alternate source of irrigation, and soil quality are important variables influencing water buying and selling decisions. Importantly, personal attributes such as kinships, age, and education were also found important factors affecting water buying and selling decisions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationACE 2011
Subtitle of host publication40th Proceedings
Place of PublicationCanberra
PublisherThe Economic Society of Australia
Pages1-26
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventAustralian Conference of Economists - Canberra, Australia
Duration: 11 Jul 201113 Jul 2011

Conference

ConferenceAustralian Conference of Economists
CountryAustralia
Period11/07/1113/07/11

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upland region
market
groundwater
water
crop
marketing
irrigation
kinship
econometrics
soil quality

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Khair, S., Mushtaq, S., Culas, R., & Hafeez, M. (2011). Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions: The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan. In ACE 2011: 40th Proceedings (pp. 1-26). Canberra: The Economic Society of Australia.
Khair, Syed ; Mushtaq, Shahbaz ; Culas, Richard ; Hafeez, Muhammad. / Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions : The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan. ACE 2011: 40th Proceedings. Canberra : The Economic Society of Australia, 2011. pp. 1-26
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abstract = "In the upland Balochistan water markets appears to provide cushions against increasing water scarcity by averting damages to high value horticultural crops and also proving useful in enhancing water efficiently as it helps overcome the problem of over irrigation/miss use of water by facilitating selling the surplus/extra water and using purchased water more sparingly and efficiently. It is envisaged that groundwater play key role in sustaining high value crops and will continue to contribute in upland Balochistan.The study documents comprehensive analysis on informal groundwater marketing in upland Balochistan, Pakistan. Informal groundwater markets are emerging a feasible option to manage increasing water scarcity and declining water tables as a result of poor groundwater policies. First we evaluated the groundwater trading mechanism and later we empirically examined factors affecting the groundwater trading using logit econometric models. We did not observe any permanent groundwater transactions; only temporary groundwater exchange takes place. Two common transactions methods were noted ' water in exchange for given crop share and cash payment per hour (flat rate per hour). In all, 60{\%} respondents reported selling water for crop share. This form of transaction method intensifies as we move from high altitude areas to low altitude areas because water and land are relatively scarce at higher uplands. In general, the crop sharing rates were 33{\%} of the crop output. Water trading in cash transactions was practiced by 40{\%} of respondents. The chargers per hour depend on the altitude, with an average price of Rs. 100, Rs.112, and Rs.205 per hour were reported at low, medium and high altitudes, respectively. This form of water marketing intensifies as we move from low to high altitude areas, mainly because of relatively abundant water and land in low altitude areas. The results of empirical models indicates that among others, cropping intensity, area under high value fruits, decline in watertable, tubewell reliability, alternate source of irrigation, and soil quality are important variables influencing water buying and selling decisions. Importantly, personal attributes such as kinships, age, and education were also found important factors affecting water buying and selling decisions.",
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Khair, S, Mushtaq, S, Culas, R & Hafeez, M 2011, Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions: The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan. in ACE 2011: 40th Proceedings. The Economic Society of Australia, Canberra, pp. 1-26, Australian Conference of Economists, Australia, 11/07/11.

Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions : The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan. / Khair, Syed; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Culas, Richard; Hafeez, Muhammad.

ACE 2011: 40th Proceedings. Canberra : The Economic Society of Australia, 2011. p. 1-26.

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paper

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AB - In the upland Balochistan water markets appears to provide cushions against increasing water scarcity by averting damages to high value horticultural crops and also proving useful in enhancing water efficiently as it helps overcome the problem of over irrigation/miss use of water by facilitating selling the surplus/extra water and using purchased water more sparingly and efficiently. It is envisaged that groundwater play key role in sustaining high value crops and will continue to contribute in upland Balochistan.The study documents comprehensive analysis on informal groundwater marketing in upland Balochistan, Pakistan. Informal groundwater markets are emerging a feasible option to manage increasing water scarcity and declining water tables as a result of poor groundwater policies. First we evaluated the groundwater trading mechanism and later we empirically examined factors affecting the groundwater trading using logit econometric models. We did not observe any permanent groundwater transactions; only temporary groundwater exchange takes place. Two common transactions methods were noted ' water in exchange for given crop share and cash payment per hour (flat rate per hour). In all, 60% respondents reported selling water for crop share. This form of transaction method intensifies as we move from high altitude areas to low altitude areas because water and land are relatively scarce at higher uplands. In general, the crop sharing rates were 33% of the crop output. Water trading in cash transactions was practiced by 40% of respondents. The chargers per hour depend on the altitude, with an average price of Rs. 100, Rs.112, and Rs.205 per hour were reported at low, medium and high altitudes, respectively. This form of water marketing intensifies as we move from low to high altitude areas, mainly because of relatively abundant water and land in low altitude areas. The results of empirical models indicates that among others, cropping intensity, area under high value fruits, decline in watertable, tubewell reliability, alternate source of irrigation, and soil quality are important variables influencing water buying and selling decisions. Importantly, personal attributes such as kinships, age, and education were also found important factors affecting water buying and selling decisions.

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BT - ACE 2011

PB - The Economic Society of Australia

CY - Canberra

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Khair S, Mushtaq S, Culas R, Hafeez M. Groundwater markets under the water scarcity conditions: The upland Balochistan region of Pakistan. In ACE 2011: 40th Proceedings. Canberra: The Economic Society of Australia. 2011. p. 1-26