Hemostasis is a complex but balanced process that permit normal blood flow, without adverse events. Disruption of the balance may lead to bleeding or thrombotic events, and clinical interventions may be required. Hemostasis laboratories typically offer an array of tests, including routine coagulation and specialized hemostasis assays used to guide clinicians for diagnosing and managing patients. Routine assays may be used to screen patients for hemostasis-related disturbances but may also be used for drug monitoring, measuring efficacy of replacement or adjunctive therapy, and other indications, which may then be used to guide further patient management. Similarly, "specialized" assays are used for diagnostic purposes or may be used to monitor or measure efficacy of a given therapy. This chapter provides an overview of hemostasis and thrombosis, with a focus on laboratory testing that may be used to diagnose and help manage patients suspected of hemostasis- and thrombosis-related disorders.