Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) represents an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against heparin in complex with platelet factor 4 (PF4) after heparin administration. These antibodies can be detected by a variety of immunological assays, including ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and by chemiluminescence on the AcuStar instrument. However, pathological HIT antibodies are those that activate platelets in a platelet activation assay and cause thrombosis in vivo. We would tend to call this condition heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (HITT), although some workers instead use the truncated abbreviation HIT. Vaccine-induced (immune) thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) instead reflects an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against PF4 after administration of a vaccine, most notably adenovirus-based vaccines directed against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Although both VITT and HITT reflect similar pathological processes, they have different origins and are detected in different ways. Most notable is that anti-PF4 antibodies in VITT can only be detected immunologically by ELISA assays, tending to be negative in rapid assays such as that using the AcuStar. Moreover, functional platelet activation assays otherwise used for HITT may need to be modified to detect platelet activation in VITT.