Aluminium (Al) tolerance in barley is conditioned by the Alp locus on the long arm of chromosome 4H, which is associated with Al-activated release of citrate from roots. We developed a high-resolution map of the Alp locus using 132 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between Dayton (Al-tolerant) and Zhepi 2 (Al-sensitive) and 2,070 F2 individuals from a cross between Dayton and Gairdner (Al-sensitive). The Al-activated efflux of citrate from the root apices of Al-tolerant Dayton was 10-fold greater than from the Al-sensitive parents Zhepi 2 and Gairdner. A suite of markers (ABG715, Bmag353, GBM1071, GWM165, HvMATE and HvGABP) exhibited complete linkage with the Alp locus in the DH population accounting 72% of the variation for Al tolerance evaluated as relative root elongation. These markers were used to map this genomic region in the Dayton/Gairdner population in more detail. Flanking markers HvGABP and ABG715 delineated the Alp locus to a 0.2 cM interval. Since the HvMATE marker was not polymorphic in the Dayton/Gairdner population we instead investigated the expression of the HvMATE gene. Relative expression of the HvMATE gene was 30-fold greater in Dayton than Gardiner. Furthermore, HvMATE expression in the F2:3 families tested, including all the informative recombinant lines identified between HvGABP and ABG715 was significantly correlated with Al tolerance and Al-activated citrate efflux. These results identify HvMATE, a gene encoding a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein, as a candidate controlling Al tolerance in barley.
Wang, J., Raman, H., Zhou, M., Ryan, P. R., Delhaize, E., Hebb, D. M., Coombes, N., & Mendham, N. (2007). High-resolution mapping of the Alp locus and identification of a candidate gene HvMATE controlling aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 115(2), 265-276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-007-0562-9