How we diagnose 2M von Willebrand disease (VWD): Use of a strategic algorithmic approach to distinguish 2M VWD from other VWD types

Emmanuel J Favaloro, Soma Mohammed, Ronny Vong, Susan Oliver, Yvonne Brennan, James W Favaloro, Jennifer Curnow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder and caused by an absence, deficiency or defect in von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWD is currently classified into six different types: 1, 2A, 2B, 2N, 2M, 3. Notably, 2M VWD is more often misdiagnosed as 2A or type 1 VWD than properly identified as 2M VWD. Aim: To describe an algorithmic approach to better ensure appropriate identification of 2M VWD, and reduce its misdiagnosis, as supported by sequential laboratory testing. Methods: Comparative assessment of types 1, 2A, 2B and 2M VWD using various laboratory tests, including VWF antigen and several VWF activity assays, plus DDAVP challenge data, ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination (RIPA) data, multimer analysis and genetic testing. Results: Types 1, 2A, 2B and 2M VWD give characteristic test patterns that can provisionally classify patients into particular VWD types. Notably, type 1 VWD shows low levels of VWF, but VWF functional concordance (VWF activity/Ag ratios >0.6), with both baseline assessment and post-DDAVP. Types 2A, 2B and 2M VWD show VWF functional discordance (low VWF activity/Ag ratio(s)) dependent on the defect, but type 2M separates from 2A/2B VWD based on specific test patterns, especially with collagen binding vs glycoprotein Ib binding assays. RIPA identifies 2B VWD. Multimers separate 2M from 2A/2B. Conclusion: We provide strategies to improve correct diagnosis of VWD, especially focussed on 2M VWD, and which can be used by most diagnostic haemostasis laboratories, reserving genetic analysis (if required) for confirmation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-148
Number of pages12
JournalHaemophilia
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

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