Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Sok Cheon Pak, Soo Liang Ooi, Peter S Micalos, Kentaro Ninomiya, Mamdooh H. Ghoneum

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a retrovirus, HIV-1 is more virulent and prevalent compared to HIV-2. HIV infection leads to progressive loss of CD4+ T cells. The depletion of CD4+ T cells triggers a wide range of immunological abnormalities and hematological changes, increasing the risk of opportunistic infections and malignancies due to immunodeficiency. The current regimen of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is not curative, but durable viral load suppression is continued so that the person with HIV can maintain high CD4+ T cells for sustainable living. Although ART extends life expectancy, there comes a point where immunomodulation aiming to reduce HIV-associated immune activation and enhance the immune response to control HIV infection is still required. Biobran is a potent biological response modifier with immunomodulatory properties. The potential anti-HIV activity of Biobran was demonstrated via augmentation of lymphocyte proliferation in an HIV-infected individual. Biobran supplementation could potentially improve CD4+ T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV positive patients. Such findings support the potential use of Biobran as an adjunct therapy for people living with HIV.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationModified rice bran arabinoxylan
Subtitle of host publicationTherapeutic applications in cancer and other diseases
EditorsSok Cheon Pak, Soo Liang Ooi, Peter S. Micalos, Mamdooh H. Ghoneum
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9789811957352
ISBN (Print)9789811957345
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2023


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