Chronic sustained hyperglycaemia also results in micro- and macrovascular complications occurring through a number of mechanisms of which oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory changes via the innate immune system have increased in interest for medical diagnostics.[1,2] Impaired fasting glucose(IFG) may lead to the development of T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), associated with increased OS along with the ensuing chronic subclinical inflammatory processes apparent with developing insulin resistance. The challenge is to prevent complications associated with IFG of which ~30% will remain undiagnosed for a significant period of time. The InternationalDiabetes Federation have recognized the importance of the traditional biomarkers (general biochemistry): blood glucose (BGL), haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), and lipid studies along with lifestyle improvement and drug treatment regimens to combat T2DMand CVD. There is also a recognition that lower blood glucose levels (<7.8 mmol/l) have lower rates of all major end point diabetic complications. However, pathophysiological processes already occur with minor increases in BGL. Traditional biomarkers as predictors for T2DM Introduction: The increasing prevalence of hyperglycaemia implicates a state of oxidative estress and inflammation. Traditional and emerging biomarkers associated with increasing hyperglycaemia were assessed to clarify their role they play in hyperglycemia. Results: 309 participants attending a rural diabetic screening program were categorised into control and quintile groups based upon glucose levels: 1st quintile - <4.5 mmol/L and 4th,5th quintile - >6.1 mmol/L. Significant results were obtained for anthropometric data and biochemical markers - glucose, HbA1c and total cholesterol (P < 0.001); oxidative stress:glutathione (P < 0.001), glutathione:glutathione disulfide and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine(P < 0.05). Interleukin -1ÃŸ and inflammatory marker ratios IL-6/IL-10, IL-1ÃŸ/IL-10, MCP-1/IL-10,IGF-1/IL-10 and IL-6/IL-1ÃŸ were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study provided further evidence that inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers may contribute to diagnostic information associated with preclinical increases in BGL. Further, we have provided a unique study in the analysis of ratios of inflammatory biomarkers and correlations with increasing BGL.KEYWORDSType 2 diabetes mellitus;impaired fasting glucose;prediabetes; cardiovasculardisease; oxidative stress; riskfactors; body mass index;glutathione; glutathionedisulphide; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; interleukin1ÃŸ; interleukin-6; interleukin10; monocytechemoattractant protein 1;insulin like growth factor 1IntroductionAlterations to homeostatic disturbances in glucosemetabolism and resultant hyperglycaemia are causativefactors for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).