Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. (syn. of Erigeron bonariensis L.) is a difficult-to-control summer weed species in the cropping belt of south-eastern Australia. Herbicide resistance may be affecting the ability to control C. bonariensis in the agricultural region of north-eastern Victoria; therefore, a survey was conducted to evaluate resistance to herbicides from several mode-of-action groups. Of the populations collected, 40% were resistant to glyphosate at 1080 g ha-1. Chlorsulfuron failed to control any of the populations collected. Further research identified multiple herbicide resistance to glyphosate, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl and sulfometuron-methyl in five of nine populations fully characterised. Resistance was not found to 2,4-D, clopyralid or paraquat. There was no correlation between prevailing land use and the frequency of glyphosate-resistant populations, suggesting that resistance had been selected in multiple production systems. The high frequency of resistance could explain the difficulty experienced in controlling C. bonariensis across north-eastern Victoria and demonstrates the importance of integrated weed management to manage this weed.