Identification of equine herpesviruses (EHV) in horses presented for evaluation of respiratory disease and/or poor performance

L Wang, Jan Lievaart, CM Steel, Sharanne Raidal

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Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of equine herpesviruses (EHV) to respiratory disease and poor performance, and to identify factors associated with infection.
Materials and methods: Respiratory tract (nasal swab, tracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and peripheral blood samples were evaluated from 98 horses with owner-identified respiratory disease and/or poor performance. Results were compared with samples from 127 healthy adult horses. Within the population presented for veterinary examination, relationships between physical examination, clinical pathology and virology results were examined by multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Respiratory samples from 47/94 horses (50%) presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance were positive for EHV. Identification of EHV1 and EHV4 infection was based on tracheal wash and/or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 horses when nasal swabs were negative. Concurrent infection with multiple EHV was evident in both populations. Within the group presented for veterinary examination, horses from which EHV were identified in respiratory samples were more likely to have a history of acute disease, pyrexia, systemic illness and poor performance. Haematology and airway cytology did not discriminate virus positive horses.
Conclusion: EHV were identified more commonly in nasal swabs from horses presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance than control horses. Evaluation of the contribution of EHV to respiratory disease of horses requires samples from the lower respiratory tract, techniques permitting recognition of co-infection with multiple EHV and discrimination of latent EHV infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-58
Number of pages11
JournalAustralian Equine Veterinarian
Volume36
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

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Herpesviridae
Horses
Nose
Respiratory System
Infection
Horse Diseases
Herpesviridae Infections
Virology
Clinical Pathology
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Acute Disease
Hematology
Coinfection
Population

Cite this

@article{4b6e9390a62d44d1b283f2d2160a99e3,
title = "Identification of equine herpesviruses (EHV) in horses presented for evaluation of respiratory disease and/or poor performance",
abstract = "Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of equine herpesviruses (EHV) to respiratory disease and poor performance, and to identify factors associated with infection.Materials and methods: Respiratory tract (nasal swab, tracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and peripheral blood samples were evaluated from 98 horses with owner-identified respiratory disease and/or poor performance. Results were compared with samples from 127 healthy adult horses. Within the population presented for veterinary examination, relationships between physical examination, clinical pathology and virology results were examined by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Respiratory samples from 47/94 horses (50{\%}) presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance were positive for EHV. Identification of EHV1 and EHV4 infection was based on tracheal wash and/or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 horses when nasal swabs were negative. Concurrent infection with multiple EHV was evident in both populations. Within the group presented for veterinary examination, horses from which EHV were identified in respiratory samples were more likely to have a history of acute disease, pyrexia, systemic illness and poor performance. Haematology and airway cytology did not discriminate virus positive horses. Conclusion: EHV were identified more commonly in nasal swabs from horses presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance than control horses. Evaluation of the contribution of EHV to respiratory disease of horses requires samples from the lower respiratory tract, techniques permitting recognition of co-infection with multiple EHV and discrimination of latent EHV infection.",
keywords = "equine herpesvirus 1, equine herpesvirus 2, equine herpesvirus 4, equine herpesvirus 5, inflammatory airway disease, viral respiratory disease",
author = "L Wang and Jan Lievaart and CM Steel and Sharanne Raidal",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "48--58",
journal = "The Australian Equine Veterinarian",
issn = "1032-6626",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identification of equine herpesviruses (EHV) in horses presented for evaluation of respiratory disease and/or poor performance

AU - Wang, L

AU - Lievaart, Jan

AU - Steel, CM

AU - Raidal, Sharanne

PY - 2016/12

Y1 - 2016/12

N2 - Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of equine herpesviruses (EHV) to respiratory disease and poor performance, and to identify factors associated with infection.Materials and methods: Respiratory tract (nasal swab, tracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and peripheral blood samples were evaluated from 98 horses with owner-identified respiratory disease and/or poor performance. Results were compared with samples from 127 healthy adult horses. Within the population presented for veterinary examination, relationships between physical examination, clinical pathology and virology results were examined by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Respiratory samples from 47/94 horses (50%) presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance were positive for EHV. Identification of EHV1 and EHV4 infection was based on tracheal wash and/or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 horses when nasal swabs were negative. Concurrent infection with multiple EHV was evident in both populations. Within the group presented for veterinary examination, horses from which EHV were identified in respiratory samples were more likely to have a history of acute disease, pyrexia, systemic illness and poor performance. Haematology and airway cytology did not discriminate virus positive horses. Conclusion: EHV were identified more commonly in nasal swabs from horses presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance than control horses. Evaluation of the contribution of EHV to respiratory disease of horses requires samples from the lower respiratory tract, techniques permitting recognition of co-infection with multiple EHV and discrimination of latent EHV infection.

AB - Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of equine herpesviruses (EHV) to respiratory disease and poor performance, and to identify factors associated with infection.Materials and methods: Respiratory tract (nasal swab, tracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and peripheral blood samples were evaluated from 98 horses with owner-identified respiratory disease and/or poor performance. Results were compared with samples from 127 healthy adult horses. Within the population presented for veterinary examination, relationships between physical examination, clinical pathology and virology results were examined by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Respiratory samples from 47/94 horses (50%) presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance were positive for EHV. Identification of EHV1 and EHV4 infection was based on tracheal wash and/or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 horses when nasal swabs were negative. Concurrent infection with multiple EHV was evident in both populations. Within the group presented for veterinary examination, horses from which EHV were identified in respiratory samples were more likely to have a history of acute disease, pyrexia, systemic illness and poor performance. Haematology and airway cytology did not discriminate virus positive horses. Conclusion: EHV were identified more commonly in nasal swabs from horses presented for respiratory disease and/or poor performance than control horses. Evaluation of the contribution of EHV to respiratory disease of horses requires samples from the lower respiratory tract, techniques permitting recognition of co-infection with multiple EHV and discrimination of latent EHV infection.

KW - equine herpesvirus 1

KW - equine herpesvirus 2

KW - equine herpesvirus 4

KW - equine herpesvirus 5

KW - inflammatory airway disease

KW - viral respiratory disease

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 48

EP - 58

JO - The Australian Equine Veterinarian

JF - The Australian Equine Veterinarian

SN - 1032-6626

IS - 4

ER -