Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation have led to the release of several new chemicals into the environment. Some chemicals are resistant to bio- and photochemical degradation and accumulate in different environmental compartments and biota (Buccini, 2003; Wania & Mackay, 1993; Wong, Leung, Chan, & Choi, 2005). Some of these chemicals are categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are bioactive and even very low level concentration in aquatic media can pose a significant risk to living organisms (El-Shahawi, Hamza, Bashammakh, & Al-Saggaf, 2010). Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a family of anthropogenic chemicals categorized under POPs that are used to make products resistant to heat, oil, stains, grease and water (Kissa, 2001). These compounds are widely used in carpet, fibres, leather, packaging, paper, textile-related industrial products and fire control chemicals (Kissa, 2001). PFAS is partially water soluble and water is identified as the main transporter of PFAS into various environmental components.
|Number of pages||26|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2019|
- A541 – 2006 – XXX - 25600