Olive mill waste (OMW) contains substantial amounts of valuable antioxidant biophenols that can be recovered for possible applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. However, the impact of cultivar, harvesting time, and seasonal variation on the phenolic composition of OMW has not yet been assessed. Total phenols, antioxidant activity, and phenol profiles of OMW extracts from five different Australian-grown cultivars (Barnea, Correggiola, Manzanillo, Mission, and Paragon) were studied at four different harvesting times in the 2004 season. The impact of seasonal variation was assessed by comparing total phenol content, antioxidant activity, and phenol profile of two cultivars(Correggiola and Mission) harvested in the 2004 and 2005 seasons. The phenol content andantioxidant activity at different harvesting times were mainly a function of the olive cultivar. Harvesting time had a quantitative effect rather than a qualitative effect on the phenol profile. Intercultivar and harvesting time variation accounted for a 2-5-fold change in the total phenol and antioxidant capacity,while levels of individual biophenols experienced up to 50-fold change. The phenol content andantioxidant capacity of OMW significantly changed between seasons with different variation patterns for different cultivars.