Impact of thermal processing on levels of acrylamide in a wheat-lentil flour matrix

Drew Portman, Pankaj Maharjan, Chris Blanchard, Mani Naiker, Joe F. Panozzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


A growing demand for plant-based protein has seen a resurgence in the utilisation of pulses such as lentil and chickpea as a protein-rich substrate to produce food products traditionally based on animal or cereal protein. Additionally, pulses offer metabolic benefits due to the bioactivity of compounds including phenolic acids, simple and complex carbohydrates and a more complete amino-acid profile which is not found in cereal grains. However, there is an increasing concern in the formation of acrylamide in food which occurs when asparagine, an abundant amino acid found in pulses, forms a complex with the reducing sugars; glucose, fructose, and maltose. Recent studies in animal models have shown that acrylamide is carcinogenic and therefore is a concern for humans. High levels of acrylamide have been reported particularly in fried products, primarily due to the Maillard reaction which amplifies the formation of acrylamide. This study investigated the levels of acrylamide in bread, cookies, and extruded products prepared with wheat-lentil composite flour. Our research found that extrusion resulted in a significantly lower concentration of acrylamide compared to traditional baking. Additionally, increasing the amount of lentil within the composite significantly increased the net concentration of acrylamide for all bread, cookies and extrudate products.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere78
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalLegume Science
Issue number4
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


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