Implication of HMGB1 signaling pathways in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): From molecular mechanisms to pre-clinical results

Yam Nath Paudel, Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd. Farooq Shaikh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disorder with no effective disease-modifying treatment up to date. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ALS are not yet completely understood. However, the critical role of the innate immune system and neuroinflammation in ALS pathogenesis has gained increased attention. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, acting as a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly through activation of its principal receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which are crucial components of the innate immune system. HMGB1 is an endogenous ligand for both RAGE and TLR4 that mediate its biological effects. Herein, on the ground of pre-clinical findings we unravel the underlying mechanisms behind the plausible contribution of HMGB1 and its receptors (RAGE and TLR4) in the ALS pathogenesis. Furthermore, we provide an account of the therapeutic outcomes associated with inhibition/blocking of HMGB1 receptor signalling in preventing motor neuron’s death and delaying disease progression in ALS experimental models. There is strong evidence that HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4 signaling axes might present potential targets against ALS, opening a novel headway in ALS research that could plausibly bridge the current treatment gap.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104792
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPharmacological Research
Volume156
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

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