In silico analysis and experimental evaluation of ester prodrugs of ketoprofen for oral delivery: With a view to reduce toxicity

Kishor Mazumder, Md Emran Hossain, Asma Aktar, Mohammad Mohiuddin, Kishore Kumar Sarkar, Biswajit Biswas, Md Abdullah Aziz, Md Ahsan Abid, Koichi Fukase

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Abstract

The present research aimed to synthesize ketoprofen prodrugs and to demonstrate their potentiality for oral treatment to treat chronic inflammation by reducing its hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal irritation. Methyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate, ethyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate and propyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate was synthesized by esterification and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (1 HNMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometric analysis. In silico SwissADME and ProTox-II analysis stated methyl derivative as ideal candidate for oral absorption, having a >30-fold LD50 value compared to ketoprofen with no hepatotoxicity. Moreover, in vivo hepatotoxicity study demonstrates that these ester prodrugs have significantly lower effects on liver toxicity compared to pure ketoprofen. Furthermore, ex vivo intestinal permeation enhancement ratio was statistically significant (* p < 0.05) compared to ketoprofen. Likewise, the prodrugs were found to exhibit not only remarkable in vitro anti-proteolytic and lysosomal membrane stabilization potentials, but also significant efficiency to alleviate pain induced by inflammation, as well as central and peripheral stimulus in mice model in vivo. These outcomes recommend that ketoprofen ester prodrugs, especially methyl derivative, can be a cost-effective candidate for prolonged treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2221
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalProcesses
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 09 Dec 2021

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