Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of different combinations of antimicrobial agents against carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. Methods: A checkerboard assay of meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), tigecycline (TGC), colistin (COL) and their combinations was carried out against 58 clinical carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) isolates, including 11 carbapenemase-non-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and 21 isolates producing KPC-2 enzyme, 11 NDM-1, 13 IMP, one VIM-1 and one OXA-48. The checkerboard assay was analyzed by the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). A time–kill assay and Galleria mellonella infection model were conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the four drugs alone and in combination. Results: In the checkerboard assay, TGC+AK and MEM+AK combinations showed the highest synergistic effect against KPC-2 and NDM-1 carbapenemase-producing isolates, with synergy+partial synergy (defined as FICI <1) rates of 76.2% and 71.4% against KPC-2 producers, and 54.5% and 81.8% against NDM-1 producers. TGC+AK and MEM+COL combinations showed the highest rate of synergistic effect against IMP-producing isolates. Against carbapenemase-non-producing isolates, TGC+COL and TGC+AK combinations showed the highest rate of synergy effect (63.6% and 54.5%). MEM+AK showed a synergistic effect against one VIM-1 producer (FICI=0.31) and an additivite effect (FICI=1) against one OXA-48 producer. In the time–kill assay, COL+AK, COL+TGC, COL+MEM and AK+TGC showed good synergistic effects against the KPC-2-producing isolate D16. COL+MEM and COL+TGC combinations showed good effects against the NDM-1-producing isolate L13 and IMP-4-producing isolate L34. Against the carbapene-mase-non-producing isolate Y105, MEM+TGC and COL+AK showed high synergistic effects, with log10CFU/mL decreases of 6.2 and 5.5 compared to the most active single drug. In the G. mellonella survival assay, MEM-based combinations had relatively high survival rates, especially when combined with colistin, against KPC-2 producers (90% survival rate) and with amikacin against metallo-beta-lactamase producers (95–100% survival rate). Conclusion: Our study suggests that different antimicrobial agent combinations should be considered against CRKp infections with different resistance mechanisms.