Independent pharmacist prescriber intervention to improve type 2 diabetes patients' outcomes

Nasreem Bibi, Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball

Research output: Other contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


Introduction: In the UK, 4.9 million people have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), costing the NHS £10 billion annually. In England, one in six people (17.0%) has experienced depression or anxiety in the past 12 months. T2DM is managed by pharmacological therapy and lifestyle adjustment.
Objectives: This study aimed to explore if there is a relationship between depression, anxiety and poor medication adherence in patients diagnosed with T2DM. This was a pilot, single-site, observational study of patients with T2DM (n=64) randomly assigned into group A (three consultations) or group B (two consultations). All initial consultations were in-person, while follow-ups were by telephone. The measurable outcomes were changes in HbA1c, BP, and self-reported well-being. Thematic and comparative analysis was conducted by groups and demographic variables using paired sample t-test and statistical regression.
Methods: A scoping study was also carried out to identify gaps in the current literature and understand the T2DM and MIH comorbidity trends in the local population from the West Midlands, UK,to inform future studies. The reviewed studies reported a relationship between T2DM control and depression and anxiety but disagreed on its significance. The clinical audit of 71 patients diagnosed with T2DM showed that 73% of males presented with poor diabetes control (HbA1c>7) compared to females (46%). Conversely, females exhibited a higher prevalence of MIH (45%) than males (31%).
Results: The overall study showed that BP readings were unchanged but remained in the recommended range for both groups, under 130/82 mmHg. Based on the manual thematic coding, there were three possible phenomena(high self-care efficacy and favourable disease prognosis [F=7 & M=4], high self-care efficacy and poor disease prognosis [F= 15 & M=11] and poor self-care efficacy and poor disease prognosis[F=12 & M=11]) and one phenomenon was not proven due to the small sample size and possible patients self-reporting bias (poor self-care efficacy and favourable disease prognosis [F=1 & M=3]).More frequent interventions were advantageous.
Conclusions: Two prototype T2DM management algorithms were created, which were generic and tailored to patients from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds. These were adopted in the study site and were provided to the HRA in the final ethics report for NHS use in wider primary care. Other ethnicities and chronic conditions could be similarly investigated.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventFIP Pharmacy Practice Research summer meeting 2023 - University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Duration: 03 Jul 202304 Jul 2023


OtherFIP Pharmacy Practice Research summer meeting 2023
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