Indexing Response to intervention. A longitudinal study of reading risk from kindergarten through third grade

Deborah C. Simmons, Michale D Coyne, Oi-man Kwok, Sarah McDonagh, Beth A. Harn, Edward J. Kame'enui

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95 Citations (Scopus)
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In this study, response to intervention and stability of reading performance of 41 kindergarten children identified as at risk of reading difficulty were evaluated from kindergarten through third grade. All students were assessed in the fall of each academic year to evaluate need for intervention, and students who fell below the 30th percentile on criterion measures received small-group supplemental intervention. Measures included a combination of commercial normative referenced measures and specific skill and construct measures to assess growth or change in reading risk status relative to 30th percentile benchmarks. Results indicated that consistent with the findings of prior research involving students with comparable entry-level performance, the majority of children identified as at risk in the beginning of kindergarten responded early and positively to intervention. On average absolute performance levels at the end of kindergarten positioned students for trajectories of later reading performance that exceeded the 50th percentile on the majority of measures. Moreover, changes in risk status that occurred early were generally sustained over time. Only oral reading fluency performance failed to exceed the 30th percentile for the majority of students.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-173
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008


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