Inequality regimes in male-dominated trades: What role do apprenticeship intermediaries (GTOs) play?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In Australia and internationally, there continues to be substantial underrepresentation of women in ‘male-dominated’ trade occupations, particularly in regional locations. Inequality regimes operate at inter-organisational and intra-industry levels to exclude women from these occupations. A notable barrier is the apprenticeship system which requires women to overcome obstacles to both employment and training. Government and industry stakeholders have attempted to address regional labour market issues and encourage women’s entry into the male-dominated trades through the development of Group Training Organisations (GTOs). GTOs reduce the impact of regional labour market fluctuations and support apprenticeship processes. Drawing on a recent study of regional women apprentices in male-dominated industries we find that although GTOs have an important role in regional training markets, they have inconsistent results in challenging existing workplace inequality regimes. There is a risk that their work can be undermined by the transmission of intra-industry inequality regimes into these industry-level bodies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalThe Economic and Labour Relations Review
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 01 Jun 2022


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