Interactions of fungal entomopathogens with synthetic insecticides for the control of Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

Kim Khuy Khun, Gavin J. Ash, Mark M. Stevens, Ruth K. Huwer, Bree A.L. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the interactions between insecticides (acephate and indoxacarb) and fungal entomopathogens (Beauveria bassiana [Bals.-Criv.] Vuill. strain B27, Metarhizium anisopliae [Metschn.] Sorokin strain ECS1, and a commercial B. bassiana product, Velifer® Biological Insecticide) for controlling the macadamia seed weevil, Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae Jennings and Oberprieler, in the laboratory and glasshouse. In the laboratory, additive interactions between insecticides at their full field concentrations (776 mg AI/L of acephate and 75 mg AI/L of indoxacarb) and fungal entomopathogens at 107 conidia/ml (ECS1 and B27) or at full field concentration (0.5 ml of Velifer®/L) were seen at 6 days and 12 days post-application. Under the same experimental conditions, synergistic interactions against K. macadamiae were observed 6 days post-application when fungal entomopathogens at 2.5 × 106 conidia/ml or at 25% of full field concentration (Velifer®) were co-applied with insecticides at 25% of their full field concentrations, whilst additive interactions were again observed at 12 days post-application. In the glasshouse, additive interactions between insecticides (at full field concentrations) and fungal entomopathogens (at 107 conidia/ml, or at full field concentration for Velifer®) were obtained at 6 days and 12 days post-application. The results from this study suggest that acephate and indoxacarb have both synergistic and additive effects against K. macadamiae when deployed together with fungal entomopathogens, depending on the initial concentrations of mixture components. Combined application of entomopathogens with compatible insecticides promises to provide more effective management of K. macadamiae than individual chemical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553-566
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Applied Entomology
Issue number6
Early online date18 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


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